Biomarkers of Endothelial activation/dysfunction in Infectious Diseases

Virulence. 2013 Aug 15;4(6):507-16. doi: 10.4161/viru.24530. Epub 2013 Apr 19.


Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of potentially serious infectious diseases and syndromes, including sepsis and septic shock, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, severe malaria, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Because endothelial activation often precedes overt endothelial dysfunction, biomarkers of the activated endothelium in serum and/or plasma may be detectable before classically recognized markers of disease, and therefore, may be clinically useful as biomarkers of disease severity or prognosis in systemic infectious diseases. In this review, the current status of mediators of endothelial cell function (angiopoietins-1 and -2), components of the coagulation pathway (von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13, and thrombomodulin), soluble cell-surface adhesion molecules (soluble E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1), and regulators of vascular tone and permeability (VEGF and sFlt-1) as biomarkers in severe infectious diseases is discussed in the context of sepsis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, malaria, and dengue virus infection.

Keywords: ADAMTS13; E-selectin; ICAM-1; VEGF; angiopoietin-1; angiopoietin-2; endothelium; malaria; sepsis; von Willebrand Factor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Communicable Diseases / blood*
  • Communicable Diseases / genetics
  • Communicable Diseases / metabolism
  • Communicable Diseases / physiopathology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Humans


  • Biomarkers