Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach

Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 May-Jun;12(3):190-9. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e318296190b.


While the benefits of physical activity are numerous, the female athlete triad poses a significant health risk to young athletes. Emerging research links the triad to endothelial dysfunction--a sentinel event in cardiovascular disease--suggesting that this complex interplay of metabolic and endocrine factors may be described more accurately as a tetrad. Effective treatment of the triad/tetrad requires a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis must be placed on prevention, recognition, and treatment of triad for the promotion of healthy nutritional and activity profiles in female athletes across their lifespans.

MeSH terms

  • Amenorrhea / diagnosis*
  • Amenorrhea / therapy*
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Athletic Injuries / therapy
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis*
  • Osteoporosis / therapy*
  • Patient Care Team
  • Syndrome
  • Women's Health