Biology and trafficking of ATG9 and ATG16L1, two proteins that regulate autophagosome formation

FEBS Lett. 2013 Jun 27;587(13):1988-96. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.04.025. Epub 2013 May 11.


Autophagy is a highly conserved intracytoplasmic degradation pathway for proteins, oligomers, organelles and pathogens. It initiates with the formation of a cup-shaped double membrane structure called the phagophore. The membrane origin for autophagosomes has been a key question for the field. ATG9 and ATG16L1, or their yeast orthologues, are key proteins that regulate autophagosome biogenesis, and may be associated with distinct membrane sources. Here we review the biology of autophagy with a focus on ATG16L1 and ATG9, and we summarise the current knowledge of their trafficking in relation to autophagic stimuli and autophagosome formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autophagy
  • Autophagy-Related Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phagosomes / metabolism*
  • Protein Transport
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins


  • ATG16L1 protein, human
  • ATG9B protein, human
  • Atg9a protein, human
  • Autophagy-Related Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins