GoldenBraid 2.0: a comprehensive DNA assembly framework for plant synthetic biology

Plant Physiol. 2013 Jul;162(3):1618-31. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.217661.


Plant synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to plant genetic design. One strategic requirement of plant synthetic biology is the adoption of common standardized technologies that facilitate the construction of increasingly complex multigene structures at the DNA level while enabling the exchange of genetic building blocks among plant bioengineers. Here, we describe GoldenBraid 2.0 (GB2.0), a comprehensive technological framework that aims to foster the exchange of standard DNA parts for plant synthetic biology. GB2.0 relies on the use of type IIS restriction enzymes for DNA assembly and proposes a modular cloning schema with positional notation that resembles the grammar of natural languages. Apart from providing an optimized cloning strategy that generates fully exchangeable genetic elements for multigene engineering, the GB2.0 toolkit offers an evergrowing open collection of DNA parts, including a group of functionally tested, premade genetic modules to build frequently used modules like constitutive and inducible expression cassettes, endogenous gene silencing and protein-protein interaction tools, etc. Use of the GB2.0 framework is facilitated by a number of Web resources that include a publicly available database, tutorials, and a software package that provides in silico simulations and laboratory protocols for GB2.0 part domestication and multigene engineering. In short, GB2.0 provides a framework to exchange both information and physical DNA elements among bioengineers to help implement plant synthetic biology projects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Agrobacterium / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Cloning, Molecular / methods
  • DNA / biosynthesis
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Silencing
  • Genetic Engineering / methods*
  • Internet
  • Plants / genetics*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Plasmids
  • Protein Interaction Mapping / methods
  • Software*
  • Synthetic Biology / methods*
  • Tobacco / genetics
  • User-Computer Interface


  • DNA