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, 43 (2), 62-73

New Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analyses Among Adults With a Skeletal Class I Pattern and Normal Occlusion

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New Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analyses Among Adults With a Skeletal Class I Pattern and Normal Occlusion

Mohamed Bayome et al. Korean J Orthod.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess new three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric variables, and to evaluate the relationships among skeletal and dentoalveolar variables through 3D cephalometric analysis.

Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired from 38 young adults (18 men and 20 women; 22.6 ± 3.2 years) with normal occlusion. Thirty-five landmarks were digitized on the 3D-rendered views. Several measurements were obtained for selected landmarks. Correlations among different variables were calculated by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient values.

Results: The body of the mandible had a longer curve length in men (102.3 ± 4.4 mm) than in women (94.5 ± 4.7 mm) (p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the maxillary basal curve length. Men had significantly larger facial dimensions, whereas women had a larger gonial angle (117.0 ± 4.0 vs. 113.8 ± 3.3; p < 0.001). Strong-to-moderate correlation values were found among the vertical and transverse variables (r = 0.71 to 0.51).

Conclusions: The normative values of new 3D cephalometric parameters, including the maxillary and mandibular curve length, were obtained. Strong-to-moderate correlation values were found among several vertical and transverse variables through 3D cephalometric analysis. This method of cephalometric analyses can be useful in diagnosis and treatment planning for patients with dentofacial deformities.

Keywords: Anatomy; Ethnic norms; Three-dimensional cephalometrics; Three-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors report no commercial, proprietary, or financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Reorientation of head and coordinate system. N, Nasion; X, the horizontal plane; Y, the midsagittal plane; Z, the vertical plane.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Frontal view shows maxillary landmarks and variables: Z, Zygomatic point; Or, orbitale; FH, Frankfort horizontal plane; M, maxillary point; CE, canine eminence; MB U6, mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar; 1, upper facial width; 2, maxillary height; 3, posterior maxillary basal width; 4, anterior maxillary basal width.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Lateral view of the mandible shows ramal and condylar landmarks and parameters: FH, Frankfort horizontal plane; Co, condylion; Go, gonion; Me, menton; 1, condylar height; 2, condylar anteroposterior inclination; 3, ramal anteroposterior inclination; 4, ramal length; 5, gonial angle; 6, mandibular body length.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Posterior view of the mandible shows ramal and condylar landmarks and parameters: FH, Frankfort horizontal plane; Co, condylion; Med Co, medial condyle; Lat Co, lateral condyle; Go, gonion; 1, ramal mediolateral inclination; 2, condylar width; 3, condyle to midsagittal plane; 4, gonion to midsagittal plane.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Mandibular body variables: Me, menton; MBC, mandibular body curve; Go, gonion; 1, menton angle; 2, mandibular body length; 3, anterior mandibular body length; 4, posterior mandibular body length; 5, MBC angle.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Mandibular basal curve length: Go, gonion; Me, menton; MBC, mandibular body curve.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Maxillary basal curve length: Max. T, maxillary tuberosity; CE, canine eminence; A, A point.

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