Background: This study involving 351 children who had undergone kidney biopsy secondary to persistent asymptomatic isolated hematuria was undertaken to assess histological diagnosis of the disease and its natural history and prognosis.
Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: 215 patients with asymptomatic isolated microhematuria (AIMH; proteinuria <0.1 g/day) and 136 patients with persistent asymptomatic microhematuria, recurrent macrohematuria and/or proteinuria (AMHP; proteinuria 0.1-0.25 g/day). After kidney biopsy, the patients were monitored for 2-10 years.
Results: Normal biopsies or minor abnormalities were more frequent in AIMH patients than those in AMHP patients, who exhibited IgA nephropathy more frequently. During the 2- to 10-year follow-up period, adverse renal events (i.e., development of proteinuria, hypertension, or impaired renal function) were observed in 13/215 (6.0%) patients with AIMH and 31/136 (22.8%) patients with AMHP (χ(2)=15.521, P<0.001).
Conclusions: Normal biopsies or minor abnormalities were more frequently observed in AIMH patients, whereas IgA nephropathy and adverse renal events were more frequent in AMHP. Microscopic hematuria, especially when accompanied by macroscopic hematuria and proteinuria, may represent an important risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.