Equine influenza--a global perspective

Vet Microbiol. 2013 Nov 29;167(1-2):205-14. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.03.029. Epub 2013 Apr 9.


To date, equine influenza outbreaks have been reported all over the world with the exception of a small number of island nations including New Zealand and Iceland. Influenza is endemic in Europe and North America and is considered to be of potentially major economic significance to the equine industry worldwide. The importation of subclinically infected vaccinated horses, and inadequate quarantine procedures have resulted in several major outbreaks in susceptible populations for example, in Australia (2007) when more than 76,000 horses on over 10,000 properties were reported as infected. This review summarises the current understanding of, and recent research on, equine influenza, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, management and prevention. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques are discussed as are the merits of different vaccination regimes.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Equine influenza; Laboratory diagnosis; Management; Vaccination.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
  • Disease Outbreaks / veterinary*
  • Global Health
  • Horse Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Horse Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Horse Diseases* / immunology
  • Horse Diseases* / pathology
  • Horse Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Horses
  • Orthomyxoviridae / classification
  • Orthomyxoviridae / physiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Vaccination / veterinary