The association of depression, anxiety and nocturia: a systematic review

J Urol. 2013 Sep;190(3):953-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.03.126. Epub 2013 May 13.


Purpose: This systematic review focuses on the relationship between nocturia and depression/anxiety. Our objective is to provide an overview of current data on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and patient management implications of the association between nocturia and depression/anxiety.

Materials and methods: We queried PubMed®, Web of Science® and Embase™ in July 2012 to identify abstracts, and original, review and editorial articles on nocturia and mood disorders, specifically depression and anxiety. The search was done using the key words "nocturia," "depression" and "anxiety." We complied with the Assessment of Multiple Systemic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument. We retrieved a total of 500 records, including 95, 81 and 324 from PubMed, Web of Science and Embase, respectively.

Results: Cross-sectional (level 3) data indicated that nocturia and depression/anxiety are strongly associated. One prospective study contended that depression leads to nocturia in a unidirectional relationship. Nocturia poses a greater risk for depression in men vs women. Results conflict on the effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors on nocturia.

Conclusions: The results of this systematic review suggest a bidirectional association between depression and nocturia. The relationship between anxiety and nocturia is less clear. Practicing clinicians should consider administering a brief self-administered scale to assess for depression in patients with nocturia.

Keywords: SSRI; anxiety; depression; nocturia; questionnaires; serotonin reuptake inhibitor; urinary bladder.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Depressive Disorder / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nocturia / diagnosis
  • Nocturia / epidemiology*
  • Nocturia / psychology*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution
  • Stress, Psychological
  • Surveys and Questionnaires