Racial differences and income disparities are associated with poor outcomes in kidney transplant recipients with lupus nephritis

Transplantation. 2013 Jun 27;95(12):1471-8. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e318292520e.


Background: An analysis of income and racial/ethnic disparities on renal transplant outcomes in recipients with lupus nephritis (LN) has not been reported. We analyzed the United States Renal Data System database to assess the impact of these disparities on graft loss and death in the LN and non-LN cohorts.

Methods: We identified 4214 patients with LN as the cause of end-stage renal disease in a retrospective cohort of 150,118 patients first transplanted from January 1, 1995 to July 1, 2006. We merged data on median household income from the United States Census based on the ZIP code.

Results: In multivariate Cox regression analyses, African-Americans (AF) recipients with LN (vs. non-AF) had an increased risk of graft loss (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60) and death (AHR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63). Furthermore, there were significant associations of lower-income quintiles with higher risk for graft loss and death among AF with LN. In comparison, among non-AF recipients with LN, income levels did not predict risk for transplant outcomes. The racial disparity for both graft loss and death outcomes among AF with LN was greater than among AF without LN (AHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.29-1.36 for graft loss and AHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05 for death).

Conclusions: AF kidney transplant recipients with LN were at increased risk for graft loss and death compared with non-AF. Income levels were associated with the risk of graft loss and death in AF but not in non-AF recipients with LN.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Graft Survival
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Lupus Nephritis / epidemiology
  • Lupus Nephritis / ethnology
  • Lupus Nephritis / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Class
  • Treatment Outcome