A 2-fold higher rate of intraventricular hemorrhage-related mortality in African American neonates and infants

J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Jul;12(1):49-53. doi: 10.3171/2013.4.PEDS12568. Epub 2013 May 17.


Object: Despite the recognition of racial or ethnic differences in preterm gestation, such differences in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), frequently associated with preterm gestation, are not well studied. The authors performed the current study to identify racial or ethnic differences in the incidence of IVH-related mortality within the national population of the US.

Methods: Using the ICD-10 codes P52.0, P52.1, P52.2, P52.3, and P10.2 and the Multiple Cause of Death data from 2000 to 2009, the authors identified all IVH-related mortalities that occurred in neonates and infants aged less than 1 year. The live births for whites and African Americans from the census for 2000-2009 were used to derive the incidence of IVH-related mortality for whites and African Americans per 100,000 live births. The IVH rate ratio (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) and annual percent change (APC) in the incidence rates from 2000 to 2009 were also calculated.

Results: A total of 3249 IVH-related mortality cases were reported from 2000 to 2009. The incidence rates of IVH were higher among African American infants (16 per 100,000 live births) than among whites (7.8 per 100,000 live births). African American infants had a 2-fold higher risk of IVH-related mortality compared with whites (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2). The rate of increase over the last 10 years was less in African American infants (APC 1.6%) than in white infants (APC 4.3%).

Conclusions: The rate of IVH-related mortality is 2-fold higher among African American than white neonates and infants. Further studies are required to understand the underlying reasons for this prominent disparity in one of the most significant causes of infant mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant Mortality / trends*
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Male
  • Survival Rate
  • United States / epidemiology