Bone metastases in endometrial cancer: report on 19 patients and review of the medical literature

Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Sep;130(3):474-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.05.010. Epub 2013 May 15.


Objective: Because few cases of bone metastases of endometrial cancer have been reported, and information is scarce on their incidence, treatment, prognosis, and outcomes, we sought to compile a series of bone metastases of endometrial cancer and to systematically review the medical literature.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who had osseous metastases of endometrial cancer treated initially at Mayo Clinic (1984-2001), and of all patients who were referred for treatment of primary bone metastases after primary treatment for endometrial cancer elsewhere.

Results: Of 1632 patients with endometrial cancer, 13 (0.8%) had primary bone dissemination and 6 (0.4%) were referred after initial treatment. Three (15.8%) of these 19 had bone metastases at presentation; in the rest, median time to recurrence was 19.5 months (range, 3-114). The most common sites were the spine and hip. Median survival after metastasis was 12 months (range, 2-267). Median survival after radiotherapy alone vs. multimodal treatment was 20 months (range, 12-119) vs. 33 months (range, 9-267), respectively (P > .99). Of the 87 cases we reviewed from the literature, all but 1 (98.9%) had diagnoses based on symptoms. Multiple bone involvement and extraosseous dissemination were associated with poor prognosis. Type II endometrial cancer (i.e., serous or clear-cell histology) was associated with shorter life expectancy after diagnosis of bone metastasis compared to Type I tumors.

Conclusions: The incidence of primary bone metastases of endometrial cancer is < 1%. Single bone metastases without extraosseous spread indicate less aggressive disease. Optimal treatment is unclear.

Keywords: Bone; EC; Endometrial neoplasms; FIGO; Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics); Neoplasm metastases; Osseous; Prognosis; endometrial cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / secondary*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Neoplasms / pathology
  • Bone Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Female
  • Hip / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spine / pathology*