Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of bacterial behavior. Various studies have implicated c-di-GMP in biofilm formation and virulence factor production in multitudes of bacteria. Hence it is expected that the disruption of c-di-GMP signaling could provide an effective means to disrupt biofilm and/or virulence factor formation in several bacteria of clinical relevance. C-di-GMP achieves the regulation of bacterial phenotype via binding to several effector molecules including transcription factors, enzymes and riboswitches. Crystal structure analyses of c-di-GMP effector molecules, in complex with the ligand, reveal that various classes of c-di-GMP receptors recognize this dinucleotide using different sets of recognition elements. Therefore, it is plausible that different analogues of c-di-GMP could be used to selectively modulate a specific class of c-di-GMP binding receptors, and hence modulate the bacterial phenotype. Thus far only a detailed study of the differential binding of c-di-GMP analogues to riboswitches, but not proteins, has been reported. In this report, we prepared various 2'-modified analogues of c-di-GMP and studied both polymorphisms of these analogues using DOSY NMR and the binding to several effector proteins, such as PilZ-containing proteins, diguanylate cyclases (DGC) containing I-sites, and phoshphodiesterases (PDE). 2'-Modification of c-di-GMP did not adversely affect the propensity to form higher aggregates, such as octameric forms, in the presence of potassium salts. Interestingly, we find that the selective binding to different classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins could be achieved with the 2'-modified analogues and that 2'-F analogue of c-di-GMP binds to the I-site of DGCs better (four times) than the native dinucleotide, c-di-GMP, whereas c-di-GMP binds to PDEs better (10 times) than 2'-F-c-di-GMP. 2'-F-c-di-GMP potently inhibits c-di-GMP synthesis by DGCs and hence raises the potential that cell permeable analogues of 2'-F-c-di-GMP could be used to disrupt c-di-GMP signaling in bacteria.
Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.