Metabolic syndrome describes a set of obesity-related disorders that increase diabetes, cardiovascular, and mortality risk. Studies of liver-specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1b) deletion mice (L-PTP1b(-/-)) suggest that hepatic PTP1b inhibition would mitigate metabolic-syndrome through amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic-reticulum stress, and whole-body lipid metabolism. However, the altered molecular-network states underlying these phenotypes are poorly understood. We used mass spectrometry to quantify protein-phosphotyrosine network changes in L-PTP1b(-/-) mouse livers relative to control mice on normal and high-fat diets. We applied a phosphosite-set-enrichment analysis to identify known and novel pathways exhibiting PTP1b- and diet-dependent phosphotyrosine regulation. Detection of a PTP1b-dependent, but functionally uncharacterized, set of phosphosites on lipid-metabolic proteins motivated global lipidomic analyses that revealed altered polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (PUFA) and triglyceride metabolism in L-PTP1b(-/-) mice. To connect phosphosites and lipid measurements in a unified model, we developed a multivariate-regression framework, which accounts for measurement noise and systematically missing proteomics data. This analysis resulted in quantitative models that predict roles for phosphoproteins involved in oxidation-reduction in altered PUFA and triglyceride metabolism.