In 2005, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC-IUPHAR) published a catalog of all of the human gene sequences known or predicted to encode G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), excluding sensory receptors. This review updates the list of orphan GPCRs and describes the criteria used by NC-IUPHAR to recommend the pairing of an orphan receptor with its cognate ligand(s). The following recommendations are made for new receptor names based on 11 pairings for class A GPCRs: hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors [HCA₁ (GPR81) with lactate, HCA₂ (GPR109A) with 3-hydroxybutyric acid, HCA₃ (GPR109B) with 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid]; lysophosphatidic acid receptors [LPA₄ (GPR23), LPA₅ (GPR92), LPA₆ (P2Y5)]; free fatty acid receptors [FFA4 (GPR120) with omega-3 fatty acids]; chemerin receptor (CMKLR1; ChemR23) with chemerin; CXCR7 (CMKOR1) with chemokines CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL11 (ITAC); succinate receptor (SUCNR1) with succinate; and oxoglutarate receptor [OXGR1 with 2-oxoglutarate]. Pairings are highlighted for an additional 30 receptors in class A where further input is needed from the scientific community to validate these findings. Fifty-seven human class A receptors (excluding pseudogenes) are still considered orphans; information has been provided where there is a significant phenotype in genetically modified animals. In class B, six pairings have been reported by a single publication, with 28 (excluding pseudogenes) still classified as orphans. Seven orphan receptors remain in class C, with one pairing described by a single paper. The objective is to stimulate research into confirming pairings of orphan receptors where there is currently limited information and to identify cognate ligands for the remaining GPCRs. Further information can be found on the IUPHAR Database website (http://www.iuphar-db.org).