Poor pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes is predicted by elevated HbA1c and spikes of high glucose values in the third trimester

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Jan;27(2):149-54. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2013.806896. Epub 2013 Jun 20.


Objective: To analyse data from a randomised, controlled study of prandial insulin aspart versus human insulin, both with NPH insulin, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes for potential factors predicting poor pregnancy outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN/METHOD: Post hoc analysis including 91 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy with known outcome in early pregnancy and 259 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy/during pregnancy of <10 weeks' gestation with known late-pregnancy outcomes. Poor early-pregnancy outcomes included fetal loss <22 gestational weeks and/or congenital malformation (n=18). Poor late-pregnancy outcomes included: composite endpoint including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and perinatal death (n=78); preterm delivery (n=63); and excessive fetal growth (n=88).

Results: 18 patients experienced a malformed/lost fetus in early pregnancy - none preceded by severe hypoglycaemia. Albuminuria in early pregnancy was a significant predictor of poor late-pregnancy outcome (composite endpoint; p=0.012). In the third trimester, elevated HbA1c, ≥ 1 plasma glucose (PG) measurement >11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL) and %PG values outside 3.9-7.0 mmol/L (70-126 mg/dL) were significant predictors of poor late-pregnancy outcomes (all p<0.05).

Conclusions: Elevated HbA1c, high glucose spikes and out-of-range %PG in the third trimester, and albuminuria in early pregnancy, are associated with poor late-pregnancy outcomes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / epidemiology
  • Food
  • Gestational Age
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Aspart / administration & dosage
  • Insulin, Isophane / administration & dosage
  • Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / blood*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Isophane
  • Insulin Aspart