Evening types are prone to depression

Chronobiol Int. 2013 Jun;30(5):719-25. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2013.784770. Epub 2013 May 20.


Certain preferences for the timing of daily activities (chronotype) may predispose an individual to sleep problems and mood disorders. In this study, we have examined the link between chronotypes and depression. Participants (N = 6071) were recruited from a random sample of the general population aged 25 to 74 yrs living in defined geographical areas, as part of the National FINRISK Study in 2007 in Finland. Chronotype assessment was based on six items from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Depression was assessed with four self-reported items, including two probes for a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, diagnosed or treated depression, and use of antidepressants. We also analyzed correlations between chronotype and several health indicators, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, weight, and waist circumference. The odds ratios for a range of indicators of depression were higher for evening types (2.7- to 4.1-fold) and intermediate types (1.5- to 1.9-fold) than for morning types. Our results suggest that individuals having a preference for evening hours to carry out their daily activities are prone to depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Depression / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors


  • Antidepressive Agents