The expression of cytoglobin as a prognostic factor in gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 88 patients

BMC Cancer. 2013 May 20;13:247. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-13-247.


Background: Evidence suggests that cytoglobin (Cygb) may function as a tumor suppressor gene.

Methods: We immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of Cygb, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), phosphorylated (p)-Akt, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 88 patients with 41 high-grade gliomas and 47 low-grade gliomas. Intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) was also determined and associated with clinicopathological factors.

Results: Low expression of Cygb was significantly associated with the higher histological grading and tumor recurrence. A significant negative correlation emerged between Cygb expression and PI3K, p-Akt, IL-6, TNFα or VEGF expression. Cygb expression was negatively correlated with IMD. There was a positive correlation between PI3K, p-Akt, IL-6, TNFα and VEGF expression with IMD.High histologic grade, tumor recurrence, decreased Cygb expression, increased PI3K expression, increased p-Akt expression and increased VEGF expression correlated with patients' overall survival in univariate analysis. However, only histological grading and Cygb expression exhibited a relationship with survival of patients as independent prognostic factors of glioma by multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Cygb loss may contribute to tumor recurrence and a worse prognosis in gliomas. Cygb may serve as an independent predictive factor for prognosis of glioma patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Brain Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cytoglobin
  • Female
  • Glioma / metabolism*
  • Glioma / pathology*
  • Globins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Microvessels / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • CYGB protein, human
  • Cytoglobin
  • Interleukin-1
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Globins
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt