Background and aims: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) may directly stimulate β-cell function and glucose metabolism. We determined the relationships of fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoA-II, and HDL-C-to-apoA-I and HDL-C-to-apoA-II ratios, as estimates of HDL particle composition, with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort after exclusion of subjects with diabetes at baseline (n = 6820; age, 28-75 years). The association of HDL-related variables with incident type 2 diabetes was determined by multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results: After a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 394 incident cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were ascertained (5.8%). After adjustment for age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, hypertension, alcohol, and smoking, odd ratios (ORs) for diabetes were 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.64; P < .001), 0.81 (0.71-0.93; P = .002), 0.02 (0.01-0.06; P < .001), and 0.03 (0.01-0.060; P < .001) per 1-SD increase in HDL-C and apoA-I and in the HDL-C-to-apoA-I and the HDL-C-to-apoA-II ratios, respectively. In contrast, apoA-II was not related to incident diabetes (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16; P=0.71). The relationships of HDL-C and the ratios of HDL-C to apoA-I and HDL-C to apoA-II remained significant after further adjustment for baseline glucose and triglycerides (OR(HDL) = 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.88], OR(HDL/APO A-I) = 0.14 [0.04-0.44], and OR(HDL/APOA-II) = 0.12 [0.04-0.36]; all P ≤ .001).
Conclusions: Higher HDL-C, as well as higher HDL-C-to-apoA-I and HDL-C-to-apoA-II ratios are strongly and independently related to a lower risk of future type 2 diabetes.