Experimental evidence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid modulation of inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipid mediators: their potential role in inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases

Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:743171. doi: 10.1155/2013/743171. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Abstract

A large body of evidence has emerged over the past years to show the critical role played by inflammation in the pathogenesis of several diseases including some cardiovascular, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative diseases, previously not considered inflammation-related. The anti-inflammatory action of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as well as their potential healthy effects against the development and progression of the same diseases, has been widely studied by our and others' laboratories. As a result, a rethinking is taking place on the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs against these disorders, and, in particular, on the influence that they may exert on the molecular pathways involved in inflammatory process, including the production of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators active in the resolving phase of inflammation. In the present review we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the modulating effects of ω-3 PUFAs on the production of inflammatory cytokines and proresolving or protective lipid mediators in the context of inflammatory, metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / pharmacology
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism*
  • Lipids / chemistry*
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy*

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipids