Neurogenesis in the adult avian brain is restricted to the telencephalon. New neurons originate in the ventricular zone (VZ) from cells that have not been identified. We mapped the position of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells in the walls of the ventricles of the adult canary brain. Labeled VZ cells were restricted to the telencephalon (lateral ventricles) and concentrated in "hot spots". The coincidence of these hot spots with regions rich in radial cells suggested that radial cells may be the cells undergoing mitosis. We used smears prepared from fragments of the VZ containing the hot spots to show directly that radial cells accumulate [3H]thymidine. In addition, grain counts at different survival times demonstrated that these cells divide. Hot spots of VZ cell division also coincided with sites of neuronal origin. We suggest that radial cell division may give rise to new neurons.