Background: Postprocedural myocardial infarction (type 4a) has been shown to be an adverse prognostic indicator after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Cardiac Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Coronary Stenting (CRISP Stent) study demonstrated that remote ischemic preconditioning reduced procedural symptoms, ECG ST-segment deviation, and cardiac troponin I release after elective PCI and reduced the major adverse cardiac and cerebral event (MACCE) rate at 6 months. We were interested to confirm if this early benefit in MACCE rate in the remote ischemic preconditioning group was sustained long-term.
Methods and results: Patients were telephoned by researchers blinded to the randomization details. MACCE, defined as all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack or stroke, and heart failure requiring hospital admission, were adjudicated by case note and national database review. One hundred ninety-two (89.3%) of the 225 patients with elective PCI randomized in the original study were available for long-term follow-up (mean time to event or last follow-up: 1579.7±603.6 days). There were a total of 59 (30.7%) MACCEs. Patients with an MACCE had a higher mean cardiac troponin I after PCI (±SD): 2.07±6.99 versus 0.91±2.07 ng/mL (P=0.05). The MACCE rate at 6 years remained lower in the remote ischemic preconditioning group (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.97; P=0.039; absolute risk reduction=0.13 and number needed to treat=8 to prevent the MACCE at 6 years).
Conclusions: Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces the incidence of postprocedural cardiac troponin I after elective PCI and confers an MACCE-free survival benefit at both short- and long-term follow-up.
Clinical trial registration: URL: http://www.ukcrn.org.uk. Unique identifier: UKCRN 4074.
Keywords: cardioprotection; ischemia reperfusion injury; outcome; percutaneous coronary intervention.