Application of yeast Candida utilis to ferment Eisenia bicyclis for enhanced antibacterial effect

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013 Oct;171(3):569-82. doi: 10.1007/s12010-013-0288-x. Epub 2013 May 23.


In this study, fermentation broth of Eisenia bicyclis with Candia utilis YM-1 exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. To perform a more detailed investigation on the antibacterial activity, the fermented broth of E. bicyclis was extracted with methanol and further fractionated with organic solvents. After 1-day fermentation, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble extract exhibited the highest anti-MRSA activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 μg/mL, suggesting that the fermentation of E. bicyclis with C. utilis YM-1 may enhance antibacterial activity against MRSA. This effect was correlated to the result obtained by an increase in total phenolic contents in EtOAc-soluble extract. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that eckol, dieckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A contents in the EtOAc-soluble extract increased significantly. Thus, these results show that anti-MRSA activity of E. bicyclis fermented with C. utilis most likely originated from phlorotannins and allow the possible application of a variety of seaweed functional foods.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / metabolism*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Candida / metabolism*
  • Fermentation*
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Phaeophyceae / chemistry
  • Phaeophyceae / metabolism*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Seaweed / chemistry


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Plant Extracts