Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jun;13(6):438-51. doi: 10.1038/nri3459.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / immunology*
  • Blindness / genetics
  • Blindness / immunology*
  • Blindness / prevention & control
  • Complement Factor H / genetics
  • Complement Factor H / immunology
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / genetics
  • Macular Degeneration / immunology*
  • Macular Degeneration / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Immunological
  • Mutation / immunology


  • Complement Factor H