A nonclinical safety assessment of MnTE-2-PyP, a manganese porphyrin

Int J Toxicol. 2013 Jul;32(4):274-87. doi: 10.1177/1091581813490203. Epub 2013 May 23.


Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or BMX-010; CASRN 219818-60-7) is a manganese porphyrin compound developed as a potential drug substance for use as a radioprotective and for the ex vivo treatment of cells, tissues, and organs intended for transplantation. In preparation for an investigational new drug filing, a full good laboratory practice nonclinical safety assessment was conducted in order to evaluate the safety of MnTE-2-PyP and included the performance of in vitro genotoxicity studies, local tissue tolerance evaluation, safety pharmacology core battery studies, and single- and repeat-dose intravenous (iv) toxicity studies in mice and monkeys. The MnTE-2-PyP was determined not to be genotoxic or hemolytic, did not demonstrate flocculation or elicit adverse pharmacologic effects on respiration, the central nervous system (CNS), and had limited transitory effects on the cardiovascular system only at levels well above the therapeutic target dose. The intended iv clinical solution did not cause venous irritation in rabbits. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in mice was determined to be 10 mg/kg/day after 18 consecutive days of bolus iv dosing once daily in the morning. The NOAEL in monkeys after 14 days of bolus iv dosing in the morning was determined to be 5 mg/kg/day. At doses relevant to clinical use in humans, neither study revealed any indication of any specific target organ toxicity, including the classic heme porphyrin kidney, liver, CNS, or cardiac toxicities, or manganese toxicity. Mortality seen shortly after dosing in individual animals at higher doses was not accompanied by any organ or clinical pathology indications, suggesting a functional pharmacological-mediated effect. Based on the results of these studies, a conservative safe initial starting clinical dose of 5.0 mg (0.083 mg/kg in a 60 kg adult) was proposed for the initiation of human trials. Because of patent life issues, use of MnTE-2-PyP as a transplantation aid or radioprotective agent is not currently being pursued past the preclinical stages. It serves as a model for the clinical development of this class of drugs.

Keywords: drug; manganese; metalloporphyrin; radiation protection; transplant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravenous
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular System / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular System / metabolism
  • Central Nervous System / drug effects
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism
  • Chromosome Aberrations / drug effects
  • DNA Damage / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Female
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Hemolysis
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Metalloporphyrins / chemistry
  • Metalloporphyrins / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
  • Rabbits
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Toxicity Tests


  • Metalloporphyrins
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • manganese tetrakis-(N-ethyl-2 pyridyl) porphyrin