Objective: The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) trial showed superiority of metformin plus rosiglitazone (M+R) over metformin alone (M), with metformin plus lifestyle (M+L) intermediate in maintaining glycemic control. We report here treatment effects on measures of body composition and their relationships to demographic and metabolic variables including glycemia.
Research design and methods: Measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, abdominal height, percent and absolute fat, and bone mineral content [BMC] and density [BMD]) were analyzed as change from baseline at 6 and 24 months.
Results: Measures of fat accumulation were greatest in subjects treated with M+R and least in M+L. Although fat measures in M+L were less than those of M+R and M at 6 months, differences from M were no longer apparent at 24 months, whereas differences from M+R persisted at 24 months. The only body composition measure differing by race and/or ethnicity was waist circumference, greater in M+R than either M or M+L at both 6 and 24 months in whites. BMD and BMC increased in all groups, but increased less in M+R compared with the other two groups by 24 months. Measures of adiposity (increases in BMI, waist circumference, abdominal height, and fat) were associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), although effects of adiposity on HbA1c were less evident in those treated with M+R.
Conclusions: Despite differential effects on measures of adiposity (with M+R resulting in the most and M+L in the least fat accumulation), group differences generally were small and unrelated to treatment effects in sustaining glycemic control.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00081328.