Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery compared with usual care with and without Exenatide therapy in obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension.
Methods: 108 obese T2DM with hypertension were enrolled and randomly allocated to usual care (group A), usual care plus Exenatide (group B), and RYGB surgery (group C). Demographic characteristics, metabolic parameters and cardiac structure/function along with inflammatory cytokines were measured and compared before and after 12 months.
Results: At 12 months, diabetes remission had occurred in no patients in groups A and B versus 90% in group C, and there was a significant decrease in requirement of antihypertensive drugs in group C compared with groups A and B (P<0.05). Other parameters (body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, lipids), inflammation index (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, high molecular weight adiponectin) and cardiac structure (left ventricular mass index) were significantly improved in groups B and C, but patients in group C had the greatest degree of improvement (P<0.05).
Conclusion: RYGB surgery improves a number of parameters including cardiovascular function in obese hypertensive people with T2DM. This is likely to be due to, at least in part, an improvement in the abnormal metabolic panel and to reduced inflammation.
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