Background: Hippocampal volumetry on magnetic resonance imaging is recognized as an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker, and manual segmentation is the gold standard for measurement. However, a standard procedure is lacking. We operationalize and quantitate landmark differences to help a Delphi panel converge on a set of landmarks.
Methods: One hundred percent of anatomic landmark variability across 12 different protocols for manual segmentation was reduced into four segmentation units (the minimum hippocampus, the alveus/fimbria, the tail, and the subiculum), which were segmented on magnetic resonance images by expert raters to estimate reliability and AD-related atrophy.
Results: Intra- and interrater reliability were more than 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, except for the alveus/fimbria, which were 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. Of all AD-related atrophy, the minimum hippocampus contributed to 67%; tail, 24%; alveus/fimbria, 4%; and the subiculum, 5%.
Conclusions: Anatomic landmark variability in available protocols can be reduced to four discrete and measurable segmentation units. Their quantitative assessment will help a Delphi panel to define a set of landmarks for a harmonized protocol.
Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; Alzheimer's disease; Anatomic landmark; Atrophy; Degeneration; Harmonization; Hippocampal atrophy; Hippocampal volumetry; Hippocampus; Magnetic resonance; Manual segmentation protocol; Manual tracing; Medial temporal lobes; Neuroimaging; Standard operating procedures.
Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.