Current status of biomarkers for prostate cancer

Int J Mol Sci. 2013 May 24;14(6):11034-60. doi: 10.3390/ijms140611034.


Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • prostatic acid phosphatase
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen