Acetate reduces PGE2 release and modulates phospholipase and cyclooxygenase levels in neuroglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide

Lipids. 2013 Jul;48(7):651-62. doi: 10.1007/s11745-013-3799-x. Epub 2013 May 25.


Acetate supplementation attenuates neuroglial activation, increases histone and non-histone protein acetylation, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and increases IL-4 transcription in rat models of neuroinflammation and Lyme's neuroborreliosis. Because eicosanoid signaling is involved in neuroinflammation, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on phospholipase, cyclooxygenase, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in BV-2 microglia and primary astrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In BV-2 microglia, we found that LPS increased the phosphorylation-state of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), reduced the levels of phospholipase C (PLC) β1, and increased the levels of cyclooxygenase (Cox)-1 and -2. Acetate treatment returned PLCβ1 and Cox-1 levels to normal, attenuated the increase in Cox-2, but had no effect on cPLA2 phosphorylation. In primary astrocytes, LPS increased the phosphorylation of cPLA2 and increased the levels of Cox-1 and Cox-2. Acetate treatment in these cells reduced secretory PLA2 IIA and PLCβ1 levels as compared to LPS-treatment groups, reversed the increase in cPLA2 phosphorylation, and returned Cox-1 levels to normal. Acetate treatment reduced PGE2 release in astrocytes stimulated with LPS to control levels, but did not alter PGE2 levels in BV-2 microglia. The amount of acetylated H3K9 bound to the promoter regions of Cox-1, Cox-2, IL-1β and NF-κB p65 genes, but not IL-4 in were increased in BV-2 microglia treated with acetate. These data suggest that acetate treatment can disrupt eicosanoid signaling in neuroglia that may, in part, be the result of altering gene expression due chromatin remodeling as a result of increasing H3K9 acetylation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / cytology
  • Astrocytes / drug effects*
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 / genetics*
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 / metabolism
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microglia / cytology
  • Microglia / drug effects*
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Phospholipase C beta / genetics*
  • Phospholipase C beta / metabolism
  • Phospholipases A2 / genetics*
  • Phospholipases A2 / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Primary Cell Culture
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factor RelA / genetics
  • Transcription Factor RelA / metabolism


  • Histones
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Ptgs1 protein, mouse
  • Phospholipases A2
  • Phospholipase C beta
  • Dinoprostone
  • Acetic Acid