Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been known to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously identified the human ubiquitin ligase HRD1 that is associated with protection against ER stress and its associated apoptosis. HRD1 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor (Pael-R), an ER stress inducer and causative factor of familial PD, thereby preventing Pael-R-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, upregulation of HRD1 by the antiepileptic drug zonisamide suppresses 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal cell death. We review recent progress in the studies on the mechanism of ER stress-induced neuronal death related to PD, particularly focusing on the involvement of HRD1 in the prevention of neuronal death as well as a potential therapeutic approach for PD based on the upregulation of HRD1.