Melanins and melanogenesis: methods, standards, protocols

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Sep;26(5):616-33. doi: 10.1111/pcmr.12121. Epub 2013 Jun 21.


Despite considerable advances in the past decade, melanin research still suffers from the lack of universally accepted and shared nomenclature, methodologies, and structural models. This paper stems from the joint efforts of chemists, biochemists, physicists, biologists, and physicians with recognized and consolidated expertise in the field of melanins and melanogenesis, who critically reviewed and experimentally revisited methods, standards, and protocols to provide for the first time a consensus set of recommended procedures to be adopted and shared by researchers involved in pigment cell research. The aim of the paper was to define an unprecedented frame of reference built on cutting-edge knowledge and state-of-the-art methodology, to enable reliable comparison of results among laboratories and new progress in the field based on standardized methods and shared information.

Keywords: melanin analysis; melanin isolation; melanin spectral characterization; melanin synthesis; melanogenesis enzymes; method standardization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biophysical Phenomena
  • Chemistry Techniques, Analytical / methods*
  • Chemistry Techniques, Analytical / standards*
  • Humans
  • Melanins / biosynthesis*
  • Melanins / chemistry
  • Melanins / classification
  • Spectrum Analysis


  • Melanins