Impact of bone quality and implant type on the primary stability: an experimental study using bovine bone

J Oral Implantol. 2015 Apr;41(2):144-8. doi: 10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-11-00156. Epub 2013 May 28.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the primary stability and removal torque of bone level and tissue level implants in different bone qualities. Twenty tissue level and bone level implants (3.3 × 10 mm and 4.1 × 10 mm) were used for assessing the stability in type II and type IV bone. Forty bovine rib blocks were used in this study. The primary stability of the implant was measured by the resonance frequency using an Osstel device. The removal torque values (RTV) of the implants was assessed using a digital torque gauge instrument. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and the RTV showed a marginally higher stability with bone level implants as compared to tissue level implants. However, these differences were not statistically significant in both type of bone used (P > 0.05). On the other hand, compared to type IV, type II bone showed significant differences in the ISQ (P < 0.01) and RTV (P < 0.001) of bone level and tissue level implants. The study concluded that bone quality is an important factor in establishing primary stability than the implant dimension. Bone level and tissue level implants of same dimensions can be selected based on the esthetic demands since they showed similar mechanical properties.

Keywords: implants; osseointegration; primary stability; removal torque; resonance frequency analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis Design
  • Torque
  • Vibration


  • Dental Implants