Prevalence of HIV-1 dual infection in long-term nonprogressor-elite controllers

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 1;64(3):225-31. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31829bdc85.


Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) dual infection (DI) in long-term nonprogressor-elite controller patients (LTNP-EC) has been described only in sporadic cases and then, consequences in disease progression are not clearly established. To fill-up this limited knowledge, we analyzed, for the first time, the prevalence, host genetic polymorphisms, and clinical consequences of HIV-1 DI in a group of LTNP-EC.

Methods: For DI detection, nucleotide sequences in env gene from viruses from 20 LTNP-EC were analyzed by maximum likelihood. Epidemiological and clinical parameters and host factors of patients were also studied.

Results: DI was detected in 4 (20%) of the 20 LTNP-EC, of which 3 maintained the elite controller status. CD4⁺ T-cell counts were not different between single and DI patients although higher CD8⁺ T-cell counts were observed in DI patients, and, consequently, the CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratios were lower in LTNP-EC DI patients.

Conclusions: Prevalence of HIV-1 DIs in LTNP-EC is similar to other groups of HIV-1 patients; in addition, DI was not associated with loss of disease control in the patients. These DI LTNP-EC patients showed, in comparison with single infected patients, higher numbers of CD8⁺ T cells and lower CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratios.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Base Sequence
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Coinfection* / immunology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Long-Term Survivors*
  • HIV-1* / immunology
  • HLA-B Antigens / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / genetics
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phylogeny
  • Prevalence
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Viral Load
  • Virus Replication
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology*


  • HLA-B Antigens
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus