The objective of this study was to assess attitudes and opinions of women declining the offer of cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening through a population-based programme in Victoria, Australia. Between December 2009 and May 2011, women declining an offer of CF carrier screening were invited to participate in a questionnaire-based study. Recruitment was at two private obstetric ultrasound clinics and two private obstetric practices in Melbourne. Of the participants (n = 54), the majority were well educated (76%), aged 30-34 years (54%), with a household income of >AUD$100,000 (76%). Compared to those who accepted screening (reported in a previous study) (Ioannou et al., Public Health Genomics 13:449-56, 2010), knowledge levels were significantly lower in participants declining screening (t = 3.32, p < 0.01). The main reasons for declining screening were having no family history of CF (58%) and not considering a termination of pregnancy for CF (53%). Providers and consumers should be informed that most children born with autosomal-recessive conditions such as CF have no family history of the condition.