Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy for stent-assisted coiling of cerebral aneurysms is essential to prevent thromboembolic complications. There is concern that Y-stent-assisted coiling may increase thromboembolic complications compared with coiling with a single stent. Several reports have demonstrated that cilostazol may improve clopidogrel responsiveness. We investigated whether triple antiplatelet therapy with addition of cilostazol to aspirin plus clopidogrel for Y-stents can prevent thromboembolic events.
Methods: Between July 2010 and October 2012, we treated 40 consecutive aneurysms with coil embolization using Enterprise stents. At the peri-procedural period, dual antiplatelet agents (100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel) were used for the single stent group (n = 36), and triple antiplatelet agents (addition of 200 mg cilostazol) were used for the Y-stent group (n = 4). We evaluated post-operative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and any complications. We assessed the following for statistical analysis: age, sex, aneurysm location, shape, and size, neck size, size of parent vessels, and stent length.
Results: We found two neurological peri-procedural complications: one transient ischemic attack and one infarction. Both complications belonged to the Y-stent group, which was a significant factor of thromboembolic events (P = 0.008). There were no other significant factors related to neurological complications or positive DWI. For subgroup analysis of the single stent group, stent length was significantly longer in positive DWI than negative DWI (P = 0.04). In the follow-up period of 20 ± 8.6 months, there were no symptomatic late complications in any patients.
Conclusions: Although the number of patients in the Y-stent group is small, this group had a significantly higher risk of thromboembolic complications. While our protocol of a routine dose of dual antiplatelet therapy may be sufficient for single stent therapy, our protocol of a routine dose of triple antiplatelet therapy for Y-stents may not prevent thromboembolic events. This suggests that evaluation of platelet function may be essential, especially for Y-stents.