The Drosophila IMD pathway in the activation of the humoral immune response

Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Jan;42(1):25-35. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2013.05.014. Epub 2013 May 27.


The IMD pathway signaling plays a pivotal role in the Drosophila defense against bacteria. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in identifying the components and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway, including the means of bacterial sensing and signal transduction. While these findings have contributed to the understanding of the immune signaling in insects, they have also provided new insights in studying the mammalian NF-κB signaling pathways. Here, we summarize the current view of the IMD pathway focusing on how it regulates the humoral immune response of Drosophila.

Keywords: 20; 20-hydroxyecdysone; AMP; DAP; DREDD; Drosophila; FADD; Fas-associated protein with Death Domain; IAP; IKK; Immune response; IκB; IκB kinase; JNK; NF-κB signaling; PGN; PGRP; RHIM; RIP; RIP homotypic interaction motif; RNA interference; RNAi; TAB; TAK1; TAK1-associated binding protein 2; TCT; TGF-β activated kinase 1; antimicrobial peptide; c-Jun N-terminal kinase; death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein; imd; immune deficiency; inhibitor of apoptosis; inhibitor of κB; meso-diaminopimelic acid; peptidoglycan; peptidoglycan recognition protein; receptor-interacting protein; tracheal cytotoxin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila Proteins / immunology
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Infections / immunology*
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / immunology*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Ubiquitination


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • imd protein, Drosophila
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex