Implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: beyond breast prostheses

Ann Plast Surg. 2014 Oct;73(4):461-4. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31827faff2.


Objective: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma potentially associated with silicone-shelled breast implants. The low incidence of ALCL has prevented establishment of causality. Many implantable devices are constructed with biomaterials similar to those used in breast prostheses. The purpose of this paper is to identify reports of ALCL in association with other types of implantable devices.

Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify reports of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in association with various implantable devices.

Results: One case of ALCL was identified in association with a stainless steel internal fixation plate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was widely reported in association with various implantable biomaterials and chronic inflammation.

Conclusion: The neoplastic response associated with breast prostheses appears substantively different from other implantable devices. Physicians caring for patients with silicone elastomer-containing implants should have increased suspicion for implant-associated ALCL and report all pertinent cases in the literature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Implants / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / etiology*
  • Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects*
  • Silicone Elastomers / adverse effects
  • Silicone Gels / adverse effects


  • Silicone Elastomers
  • Silicone Gels