The impact of socio-economic, lifestyle habits, and obesity in developing of pregnancy-induced hypertension in fast-growing country: global comparisons

Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2013;40(1):52-7.


Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in the third trimester of Arab women and their neonatal outcome.

Design: A prospective study.

Setting: Women's Hospital and Maternity Clinics.

Subjects and methods: The study was based on pregnant women in third trimester from the first week of January 2010 to April 2011. A total of 2,056 pregnant women, who had any kind of maternal complications, were approached and 1,608 women (78.2%) expressed their consent to participate in the study. A questionnaire covered variables related to socio-demographic factors, family history, medical history, maternal complications, and neonatal outcome. Multiple logistic regressions were used to describe the relationship between socio-demographic factors and PIH.

Results: Pregnant women with Qatari nationality were 30% more likely to have PIH (Adj. OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9, p = 0.03). Those living in villas were 50% more likely than those living in apartments (Adj. OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.9) and 40% more likely than those living in traditional houses (Adj. OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8) to have PIH. The odds of PIH linearly increases with each decrease of 5,000 QAR in monthly income from > 20,000 to 10-15,000 (Adj. OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-2.1, Adj. OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2, respectively) and then it starts decreasing from 10,000 to < 5,000 monthly income (Adj. OR 1.8;95% CI 1.1-3.1 and Adj. OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.7 respectively). The odds of PIH linearly increase with each five years increase in age among pregnant women from 30 to 45 years of age. A 10-fold increase in PIH odds was observed when body mass index (BMI) increased above > or = 30 (obese) (Adj. OR 10.0; 95% CI 6.4-15.6). Pregnant women who had no history of previous abortion were 60% less likely than those who had positive history of previous abortion (Adj. OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-1.2; p = 0.007) to have PIH. The odds of PIH increases by 50% when women do not receive antenatal care (Adj. OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1; p = 0.040).

Conclusion: Qatar has a high prevalence of PIH compared to both regional and global rates. Maternal age > 30, increased BMI, previous abortion, lack of antenatal care, and physical activity were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of PIH in Arab women and could be potentially modifiable risk factors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arabs / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / epidemiology*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Qatar / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors