Aortic stenosis in the elderly: disease prevalence and number of candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a meta-analysis and modeling study

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Sep 10;62(11):1002-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.015. Epub 2013 May 30.


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) in the elderly and to estimate the current and future number of candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: Severe AS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. A proportion of these patients is at high or prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement, and is now considered for TAVR.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in multiple databases, and prevalence rates of patients (>75 years) were pooled. A model was based on a second systematic literature search of studies on decision making in AS. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the number of TAVR candidates in 19 European countries and North America.

Results: Data from 7 studies (n = 9,723 subjects) were used. The pooled prevalence of all AS in the elderly was 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.6% to 18.2%), and the prevalence of severe AS was 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1% to 5.7%). Among elderly patients with severe AS, 75.6% (95% CI: 65.8% to 85.4%) were symptomatic, and 40.5% (95% CI: 35.8% to 45.1%) of these patients were not treated surgically. Of those, 40.3% (95% CI: 33.8% to 46.7%) received TAVR. Of the high-risk patients, 5.2% were TAVR candidates. Projections showed that there are approximately 189,836 (95% CI: 80,281 to 347,372) TAVR candidates in the European countries and 102,558 (95% CI: 43,612 to 187,002) in North America. Annually, there are 17,712 (95% CI: 7,590 to 32,691) new TAVR candidates in the European countries and 9,189 (95% CI: 3,898 to 16,682) in North America.

Conclusions: With a pooled prevalence of 3.4%, the burden of disease among the elderly due to severe AS is substantial. Under the current indications, approximately 290,000 elderly patients with severe AS are TAVR candidates. Nearly 27,000 patients become eligible for TAVR annually.

Keywords: AS; CI; SAVR; STS-PROM; TAVR; The Society of Thoracic Surgery Predicted Risk Of Mortality; aortic stenosis; confidence interval; prevalence; surgical aortic valve replacement; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aortic Valve / surgery*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / epidemiology*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index