Metabolic regulation and chromosomal localization of carbaryl degradation pathway in Pseudomonas sp. strains C4, C5 and C6

Arch Microbiol. 2013 Aug;195(8):521-35. doi: 10.1007/s00203-013-0903-9. Epub 2013 Jun 2.


Pseudomonas sp. strains C4, C5 and C6 degrade carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) via 1-naphthol, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylate and gentisate. Carbon source-dependent metabolic studies suggest that enzymes responsible for carbaryl degradation are probably organized into 'upper' (carbaryl to salicylate), 'middle' (salicylate to gentisate) and 'lower' (gentisate to TCA cycle) pathway. Carbaryl and 1-naphthol were found to induce all carbaryl pathway enzymes, while salicylate and gentisate induce middle and lower pathway enzymes. The strains were found to harbor plasmid(s), and carbaryl degradation property was found to be stable. Genes encoding enzymes of the degradative pathway such as 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase, salicylate 5-hydroxylase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase were amplified from chromosomal DNA of these strains. The gene-specific PCR products were sequenced from strain C6, and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Southern hybridization and PCR analysis using gel eluted DNA as template supported the presence of pathway genes onto the chromosome and not on the plasmid(s).

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Carbaryl / metabolism*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Bacterial*
  • Dioxygenases / metabolism
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Gentisates / metabolism
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Naphthols / metabolism
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Phylogeny
  • Plasmids
  • Pseudomonas / enzymology
  • Pseudomonas / genetics*
  • Pseudomonas / metabolism*
  • Salicylates / metabolism


  • Gentisates
  • Naphthols
  • Salicylates
  • 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Dioxygenases
  • gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
  • salicylic acid 5-hydroxylase
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase
  • Carbaryl