Diabetic 'peripheral' neuropathy (DPN) is one of the common sequelae to the development of both type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Neuropathy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Abnormalities in both peripheral vasculature and nerve function are well documented and, in addition, evidence is emerging regarding changes within the central nervous system (CNS) that are concomitant with the presence of DPN. The often-resistant nature of DPN to medical treatment highlights the need to understand the role of the CNS in neuropathic symptomatology and progression, as this may modulate therapeutic approaches. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, especially those that can provide quantitative measures of structure and function, can provide objective markers of CNS status. With that comes great potential for not only furthering our understanding of involvement of the CNS in neuropathic etiology but also most importantly aiding the development of new and more effective, targeted, analgesic interventions.