Nanobodies and their potential applications

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013 Jun;8(6):1013-26. doi: 10.2217/nnm.13.86.


Nanobodies are recombinant, antigen-specific, single-domain, variable fragments of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies. The innate supremacy of nanobodies as a renewable source of affinity reagents, together with their high production yield in a broad variety of expression systems, minimal size, great stability, reversible refolding and outstanding solubility in aqueous solutions, and ability to specifically recognize unique epitopes with subnanomolar affinity, have combined to make them a useful class of biomolecules for research and various medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This article speculates on a number of technological innovations that might be introduced in the nanobody identification platform to streamline the generation of more potent nanobodies and to expand their application range.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • Humans
  • Nanomedicine / methods
  • Single-Domain Antibodies / analysis
  • Single-Domain Antibodies / immunology
  • Single-Domain Antibodies / therapeutic use*


  • Single-Domain Antibodies