Preemptive kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for pediatric end stage renal disease patients to avoid increased morbidity and mortality associated with dialysis. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and poverty influence preemptive transplant access in pediatric. We examined the incidence of living donor or deceased donor preemptive transplantation among all black, white, and Hispanic children (<18 years) in the United States Renal Data System from 2000 to 2009. Adjusted risk ratios for preemptive transplant were calculated using multivariable-adjusted models and examined across health insurance and neighborhood poverty levels. Among 8,053 patients, 1117 (13.9%) received a preemptive transplant (66.9% from LD, 33.1% from DD). In multivariable analyses, there were significant racial/ethnic disparities in access to LD preemptive transplant where blacks were 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.28-0.43) and Hispanics 52% (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.35-0.67) less likely to receive a LD preemptive transplant versus whites. Blacks were 22% less likely to receive a DD preemptive transplant versus whites (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57-1.05), although results were not statistically significant. Future efforts to promote equity in preemptive transplant should address the critical issues of improving access to pre-ESRD nephrology care and overcoming barriers in living donation, including obstacles partially driven by poverty.
© Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.