Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintaining genomic integrity, which is challenged by a wide variety of potentially lethal DNA lesions. Regardless of the damage type, recombination is known to proceed by RAD51-mediated D-loop formation, followed by DNA repair synthesis. Nevertheless, the participating polymerases and extension mechanism are not well characterized. Here, we present a reconstitution of this step using purified human proteins. In addition to Pol δ, TLS polymerases, including Pol η and Pol κ, also can extend D-loops. In vivo characterization reveals that Pol η and Pol κ are involved in redundant pathways for HR. In addition, the presence of PCNA on the D-loop regulates the length of the extension tracks by recruiting various polymerases and might present a regulatory point for the various recombination outcomes.
Keywords: D-loop; DNA repair synthesis; Homologous recombination; Reconstitution; TLS polymerases.
Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.