Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 13, 534

Point-of-sale Tobacco Advertising in Beirut, Lebanon Following a National Advertising Ban


Point-of-sale Tobacco Advertising in Beirut, Lebanon Following a National Advertising Ban

Ramzi G Salloum et al. BMC Public Health.


Background: The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon.

Methods: The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban.

Results: Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign.

Conclusions: POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Point-of-sale tobacco advertisement in Ras Beirut in June 2012, after decree that banned all tobacco product advertising.A) Illegal brand stretching, exterior sign. B) Kent Switch Convertibles, interior sign. C) Camel, interior sign. D) Gitanes, interior sign.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 9 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Nakkash R, Lee K. Lebanon: business as usual. Tob Control. 2006;15(3):147. - PubMed
    1. Maziak W, Nakkash R, Soweid RA. Lebanon: young stars turned to smoke. Tob Control. 2006;15(2):80–81. - PubMed
    1. Nakkash R. Lebanon: who do they think they are fooling? Tob Control. 2008;17:218–221.
    1. Nakkash R, Lee K. The tobacco industry’s thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon. Tob Control. 2009;18(4):310–316. doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.029405. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Sibai A, Tohme R, Mahfoud Z, Chaaya M, Hwalla N. Non-communicable diseases and behavioral risk factor survey: comparison of estimates based on cell phone interviews with face to face interviews. WHO Lebanon office. Beirut, Lebanon: Final report submitted to World Health Organization- Lebanon office; 2009.

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources