Mortality attributable to smoking in Vietnamese men in 2008

Prev Med. 2013 Sep;57(3):232-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.05.016. Epub 2013 Jun 1.


Objective: Smoking prevalence among Vietnamese men is among the highest in the world. Our aim was to provide estimates of tobacco attributable mortality to support tobacco control policies.

Method: We used the Peto-Lopez method using lung cancer mortality to derive a Smoking Impact Ratio (SIR) as a marker of cumulative exposure to smoking. SIRs were applied to relative risks from the Cancer Prevention Study, Phase II. Prevalence-based and hybrid methods, using the SIR for cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking prevalence for all other outcomes, were used in sensitivity analyses.

Results: When lung cancer was used to measure cumulative smoking exposure, 28% (95% uncertainty interval 24-31%) of all adult male deaths (>35 years) in Vietnam in 2008 were attributable to smoking. Lower estimates resulted from prevalence-based methods [24% (95% uncertainty interval 21-26%)] with the hybrid method yielding intermediate estimates [26% (95% uncertainty interval 23-28%)].

Conclusion: Despite uncertainty in these estimates of attributable mortality, tobacco smoking is already a major risk factor for death in Vietnamese men. Given the high current prevalence of smoking, this has important implications not only for preventing the uptake of tobacco but also for immediate action to adopt and enforce stronger tobacco control measures.

Keywords: Population attributable fraction; Smoking attributable mortality; Tobacco; Vietnam.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology
  • Lung Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Needs Assessment
  • Prevalence
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / etiology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / mortality*
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / mortality*
  • Tobacco Use Cessation
  • Vietnam / epidemiology