High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging has a central role in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases, particularly in the evaluation of patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In approximately half of cases, HRCT scans are sufficient to allow a confident IPF diagnosis. Advances in HRCT scanning and interpretation have facilitated improved accuracy for use in diagnosing IPF, eliminating the need for a surgical biopsy in many patients. HRCT may also have a role to play in predicting the prognosis of the disease;. The role of routine follow-up with HRCT to monitor patients with IPF remains unclear due to lack of sufficient evidence, although, sometimes follow-up HRCT might be necessary to rule out progressive disease in patients with undetermined diagnosis. Advances in the field of HRCT imaging are discussed, along with insights into the clinical utility of this procedure in the diagnosis and management of IPF.