Background: A great deal of evidence has shown that iron is an important component in cognitive, sensorimotor, and social-emotional development and functioning, because the development of central nervous system processes is highly dependent on iron-containing enzymes and proteins. Deficiency of iron in early life may increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity.
Methods: Utilizing the National Health Insurance Database from 1996 to 2008, children and adolescents with a diagnosis of IDA were identified and compared with age and gender-matched controls (1:4) in an investigation of the increased risk of psychiatric disorders.
Results: A total of 2957 patients with IDA, with an increased risk of unipolar depressive disorder (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.58 ~ 3.46), bipolar disorder (OR = 5.78, 95% CI = 2.23 ~ 15.05), anxiety disorder (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.49 ~ 3.16), autism spectrum disorder (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.79 ~ 5.28), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.29 ~ 2.17), tic disorder (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.03 ~ 2.78), developmental delay (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 ~ 3.00), and mental retardation (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 2.00 ~ 3.65), were identified. A gender effect was noted, in that only female patients with IDA had an increased OR of bipolar disorder (OR = 5.56, 95% CI = 1.98 ~ 15.70) and tic disorder (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.27 ~ 6.86).
Conclusion: Iron deficiency increased the risk of psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and developmental disorders. Further study is required to clarify the mechanism in the association between IDA and psychiatric disorder.