Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) survey on water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Jun 4;10(6):2282-95. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10062282.


This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Diarrhea / microbiology
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Hand Disinfection / standards
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hygiene / standards*
  • Male
  • Rural Population
  • Sanitation / standards*
  • Schools*
  • South Africa
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Toilet Facilities / standards
  • Urban Population
  • Water Quality*