In Germany and Austria, more than 90% of pediatric cancer patients are enrolled into nationwide disease-specific first-line clinical trials or interim registries. Essential components are a pediatric cancer registry and centralized reference laboratories, imaging review, and tumor board assistance. The five-year overall survival rate in countries where such infrastructures are established has improved from <20% before 1950 to >80% since 1995. Today, treatment intensity is tailored to the individual patient's risk to provide the highest chances of survival while minimizing deleterious late effects. Multicenter clinical trials are internationalized and serve as platforms for further improvements by novel drugs and biologicals.
Keywords: chemotherapy; childhood cancer; hematological malignancies; solid tumors; targeted therapies; treatment optimization studies.
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